Cells are the basic unit of life. Organisms
are composed of many different cell
types organized into tissues, organs
and organ systems.
The cell cycle
controls the reproduction of cells
. It consists of the S phase
, a phase of growth and preparation, and the M or mitotic
) phase. Mitosis
occurs during the M phase, and involves five stages: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. At the end of mitosis
, a single parent cell
has produced two identical daughter cells
that contain the same genetic information as the parent cell.
In sexual reproduction, a special type of cell division
occurs. In meiosis
, two cell divisions
occur, resulting in four daughter cells. Each daughter cell only contains one half of the genetic information of the parent cell, and each daughter cell contains a unique combination of genetic information.
Table 2.1 - Organelles and their functions
To review the parts of cells
and their functions
use the activity below.
Activity 2.1: Cell Organelles